三泰虎

巴西人對中國了解多少?中國在巴西的形象如何?

How much do Brazilians know about China? What is the image of China in Brazil?

巴西人對中國了解多少?中國在巴西的形象如何?

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以下是Quora讀者的評論:

Carlos Fujita, lived in Brazil

Well, as one would expect, there are a selected few that will know a lot about it, and a very large majority who will know almost nothing about it. Stereotypical impressions about China, shared by most people I know, include the following:

正如人們所料想的那樣,隻有少數人會對中國了解很多,而絕大多數人對它幾乎一無所知。我認識的大多數人對中國的固有印象包括:

1.There are lots of Chinese there. Like, more than one billion. We do not really know how one billion people look like but it must be a hell lot of people.

2.Because of the huge population, there is a very strict one-child-only policy.

3.They suck at football. But they are really good at stuff like table tennis and maybe gymnastics.

4.They are extremely determined and disciplined. This translates in the most beautiful opening and closing acts of Olympic Games. But they lack social skills.

5.They all look the same. And they also look the same as Japanese and Korean people (I am of Japanese descent, so I hear this all the time).

6.They manufacture most of the stuff we use. Like kitchen stuff, clothes, electronic devices. We find it funny, but are not totally surprised, when we buy souvenir from a Brazilian city we visited on vacations and it is also made in China.

7.They eat bugs.

8.They eat lots of fried chicken and chop suey. Because this is what we buy every week from the local (Brazilian) home-delivery restaurant. The most famous is called “China in Box”.

9.There is a huge wall there, that can allegedly be seen from the moon.

10.Chinese language (yes, this is the way most people think of it – as one single Chinese language) is very difficult, not only because of the thousands of different letters one has to learn, but also because it is very difficult to speak.

11.It is very far away from here.

1.中國人口衆多。超過10億。我們不知道10億人是什麼概念,但肯定有很多人。

2.因為人口衆多,所以他們有非常嚴格的獨生子女政策。

3.他們的足球踢得糟糕透頂。但是他們非常擅長乒乓球和體操。

4.他們意志堅定,紀律嚴明。這在奧運會最美麗的開幕式和閉幕式上就能看出來。但他們缺乏社交技能。

5.他們看起來都一樣。他們看起來和日本人、韓國人一樣(我是日本人的後裔,所以我經常聽到這種說法)。

6.我們用的大部分東西都是中國生産的。比如廚房用品,衣服,電子設備。我們覺得這很荒謬,但并不完全感到驚訝,我們去巴西度假城市購買紀念品時,基本也都是中國制造的。

7.他們會吃蟲子。

8.他們經常吃炸雞和炒雜碎。因為我們每周都會從當地(巴西)的外賣餐館點這些東西。最著名的是“盒子裡的中國”。

9.中國有長城,據說從月球上都可以看得到。

10.漢語很難學,不僅因為要學習成千上萬個不同的文字,而且還很難發音。

11.中國離巴西距離遙遠。

Some other stuff that sometimes pops up:

1.Chinese go nment is authoritarian. They mistreat Tibetan people, who in turn are all nice, peaceful, Dalai-Lama-like people.

2.There is also something going on with Taiwan. Not sure what…

3.They recently had a quarrel with Japan because of some empty island. This is because of some historic rivalry with Japan.

4.They have been there for, like, thousands of years.

5.Their culture is ancient. There was Confucius.

6.There are lots of rich people there. They like to buy expensive stuff.

7.There is Deal Extreme. And Ali Express.

 

Alex S. Constâncio, lives in Brazil

It's my oppinion we don't know much, in general.

We know it's a big country, with a milenary culture, with a dictatorial go nment. We know kung fu and many other martial arts have their roots in the Shao Lin temples and that there are many languages spoken in China, since we understand is as one country that was many ones in the past.

They are the inventors of the pasta and dynamite. They also have one of the biggest populations of the world and have a birth control system in effect for many years already, in order to prevent exausting all of their natural resources, more than they already are.

We know that we have to learn mandarim if we want to make business with China.

We know some pieces of their history from what movies show. We know they have a cinema industry bigger than Holywood, but not much of their production come to us. Usually, only big wuxia productions with Jacky Chan of Jet Lee. Sometimes a few romance stories with Gong Li or Zang Zi.

I believe the general knowledge about China in Brazil is fragmented, giving us a kind of incorrect and unaccurate idea on what the country is really all about.

譯文來源:三泰虎  http://wap.juhua442237.cn/48223.html 譯者:Joyceliu

總的來說,我認為對中國知之甚少。

我們知道中國是一個有着千年文化的大國。我們知道功夫和許多其他武術起源于少林寺,在中國有很多語言。

他們是意大利面和炸藥的發明者。他們也是世界上人口最多的國家之一,而且已經實行了多年的計劃生育,以防他們的自然資源被消耗殆盡。

我們知道,如果我們想和中國做生意,就必須學習中文。

我們從電影中了解到他們的一些曆史。我們知道他們有比好萊塢更大的電影産業,但他們的大部分作品并沒有傳播到巴西。通常隻有成龍和李連傑主演的武俠大片。有時也會有鞏俐的浪漫的電影。

我認為,巴西人對中國的普遍認識是支離破碎的,這讓我們對這個國家的真實情況有了一種不正确、不準确的認識。

 

Luiz Dias, Product Development Engineer at Vishay Intertechnology

I've read some of the answers and for me, the knowledge cited doesn't represent the mass population in Brazil.

In other hand, the mass has some idea of the chinese, but usually doesn't refer to the citizen chinese: for the mass, Chinese and Japanese are called "japanese" indiscriminately*. When we talk about China here, it is natural to think about commerce and products. I still think that they refer to a product as "chinese" in a pejorative sense, something with raw quality, but this is changing year by year.

我看過一些答案,對我來說,他們提到的内容并不代表巴西的大部分人的看法。

另一方面,大衆對中國人有一定的了解。當我們談論中國時,很自然會想到商業和商品。我仍然認為,他們用貶義的眼光來看待“中國商品”,認為質量粗糙,但這種情況已經一年年地在改變了。

 

Augusto Filippo, lived in Brazil

Most of the people know that China is the most populated country in the world, but they don't need to study a lot to be aware of that. They also think of China as a place that people eat the most disgusting things like scorpions, rats and stuff. Some people have difficulty to know the differences among the Asiatic people, even asking sometimes "Aren't they all the same?", but that I think it isn't exclusively a brazilian vision. 

But the image of China, for those who put effort into knowing a little bit more, is of a country with a very powerful educational system. Speaking for myself, I've read some articles about chinese education and it has given me motivation to my study schedule. Education is really the key to a huge development in many aspects to a country and the Chinese are wise to apply that.

Also, some books and magazines are treating China as the future #1 country, economically speaking, and that process of overcoming the USA has already started.

大多數人都知道中國是世界上人口最多的國家,但他們不需要學習很多就能知道這一點。他們還認為中國是一個食用惡心東西的地方,比如蠍子、老鼠等等。有些人很難分辨亞洲人之間的差異,甚至有時會問“他們不都一樣嗎?”但我認為不僅僅是巴西人會這麼想。

但對于那些用心了解中國的人來說,中國是一個擁有強大教育體系的國家。就我自己而言,我讀了一些關于中國教育的文章,這給了我學習的動力。教育是一個國家在很多方面取得巨大發展的關鍵,中國人明智地運用了這一點。

此外,一些書籍和雜志把中國列為未來的第一經濟大國,已經開始邁出超越美國的步伐。

 

Marcus Vinicius Monteiro, I'm a Brazilian programmer

I don't think the average Brazilian knows much about China, except for the food and the Kung Fu.

As for the educated Brazilian, he probably knows that China is the most populated country in the world and an already huge and still growing economy. He recognizes Mao Zedong. To him, China is also a place where there is little political freedom, and serious environmental issues. Brazilian businessmen are probably the ones that most regularly think of China, in terms of how they can leverage China to make money. Finally, as a touristic destination, I think the Brazilian traveller would rather go first to Europe, the USA and the South American countries before going to the more exotic China.

As for the Brazilian expert in China, he probably knows it much more precisely and deeply than that.

我不認為除了食物和功夫,普通的巴西人能對中國有多少了解。

至于受過教育的巴西人,他可能知道中國是世界上人口最多的國家,經濟規模很大,仍在增長。他會知道 。在他看來,中國也是一個政治自由匮乏、環境問題嚴重的地方。就如何利用中國賺錢而言,巴西商人可能是最經常想到中國的人。最後,作為一個旅遊目的地,我認為巴西遊客甯願先去歐洲、美國和南美國家,然後才會去更具異國情調的中國。

對于身在中國的巴西專家,他對中國的了解可能比這更為精确和深刻。

 

Fred Landis, Investigative Reporter

The largest community of Japanese outside Japan in in Brazil.

They have a huge influence on Brazilian business.

If tensions rose to a certain level between China and Japan, I could see this interfering with China-Brazil business.

Brazilians care less about anything outside Brazil than any similar-size country. It is a hermetically sealed system.

The only Brazilians who know or care about China are  the Japanese and those who import Chinese products.

The only time I have seen Chinese faces on Brazilian TV it is in the context of the authorities seizing warehouses full of counterfeit goods from China.

除日本本土以外,最大的日本社區就位于巴西。

他們對巴西商業有着巨大的影響。

如果中日關系緊張到一定程度,我認為這會對中巴經貿關系産生幹擾。

巴西人最關心的不是巴西以外的任何事情,而是類似規模的國家。這是一個封閉的系統。

唯一了解或關心中國的巴西人是日本人和進口中國商品的人。

我唯一一次在巴西電視上看到中國人的面孔,就是有關部門查封堆滿中國假冒商品的倉庫。

 

Nuno E. F. Silva, lives in Brazil

Anecdotal evidence suggests that the average Brazilian doesn’t think much about China. Indeed the Brazilian “man in the street” doesn’t think much about the world outside Brazil (note so self: must someday write about this different kind of [go nment/elite promoted] isolationism and its reasons).

This does not apply to the learned, educated elite, though…

Because the biggest Japanese immigration group is the one that went to Brazil, average Brazilians do know about Japanese.

When presented to an ethnic Chinese, most unadvised Brazilians will call him (surprise!) Japanese...

Fair warning: I'm a Portuguese living in Brazil.

坊間證據顯示,普通巴西人對中國并不太關注。事實上,巴西“街頭巷尾的人”對巴西之外的世界都不太關心。

然而,這并不适用于受過良好教育的精英階層。

因為日本最大的移民群體就在巴西,所以巴西的普通民衆确實了解日本人。

看到華裔時,大多數無知的巴西人會叫他(驚喜!)日本人……

聲明:我是住在巴西的葡萄牙人。

 

Joseph Boyle

Soybean farmers must know it is the main market for their crops.

大豆種植者肯定知道中國是他們作物的主要市場。

 

Apiano Morais, College professor and a traveler

Some of Portuguese words were influenced by the commerce with China 500 years ago. Like tea and fan: Chá (茶) Léque (琉球). But there is not much immigration of Chinese in Brazil.

Well… Both are huge countries in size, GDP per capita almost the same and similar food.

There are enormous differences. Brazil is essentially a urban country (85% of people live in cities) and China is essentially rural (55% in the cities). Population density in Brazil is about 25 persons per square kilometer, in China is 146. Ethnicity in Brazil is really diverse, white people from Europe and Arabic/North African ancestor responds for 50%, mixed “race” (afro-brazilians+white/afro-brazilians+native/white+native) responds for 42%, Afro-Brazilians 7%, Asian 1% and Natives 0.3%.

I do not see much similarities…

500年前,一些葡萄牙語詞彙受到了對華貿易的影響。比如:茶和風扇:茶(茶)Leque(琉球)。但在巴西,華人移民并不多。

這兩個國家都是幅員遼闊的國家,人均GDP幾乎一樣,食物也差不多。

它們之間存在着巨大的差異。巴西本質上是一個城市國家(85%的人口居住在城市),而中國本質上是一個農村國家(55%的人口居住在城市)。巴西的人口密度約為每平方公裡25人,中國為146人。巴西的種族真的很多樣化,來自歐洲的白人和阿拉伯/北非祖先占50%,混血“種族”(非洲裔巴西人+白人/非洲裔巴西人+土著/白人+土著)占42%,非洲裔巴西人占7%,亞洲人占1%,土著占0.3%。

我看不出有多少相似之處……

 

Robean Felix, knows Portuguese

Both countries are developing countries, both of them have a huge territory, both of their main cities are localized in litoral areas, both of them are in BRINCS, both of them have a HDI around 72–75, so on

這兩個國家都是發展中國家,它們都有廣闊的領土,它們的主要城市都位于沿海地區,它們都是金磚國家,它們的人類發展指數都在72-75左右。

 

Neethika Reddy, Neethika Reddy

 it has transpired as China's economic growth has slowed and manufacturing surveys show contraction, rippling across the globe as more and more companies depend on the world's number two economy.

The powerful Federation of German Industries recently noted that "German companies were definitely prepared for a slowdown in Chinese growth but were nevertheless surprised by the extreme jolts on the stock market."

事實是,随着中國經濟增長放緩,制造業調查顯示經濟出現收縮,越來越多的企業依賴于中國這個全球第二大經濟體,全球經濟受到波及。

實力強大的德國工業聯合會最近指出,“德國企業肯定為中國經濟增長放緩做好了準備,但它們仍對中國股市的劇烈震蕩感到意外。”

Both Volkswagen and BMW have warned the slowdown in China -- the world's top auto market and key source of growth for Western automakers in recent years -- could undermine sales this year. 

The Chinese slowdown has also hammered commodity prices, weighing on the fortunes of countries which produce and export key raw materials. 

That has complicated the situation for Brazil, which not so long ago had been hoping to ride the commodities boom to top rank economic status, but has instead found itself stuck in a seven-year stretch of zero or negative growth. 

The Brazilian real has tumbled to a 12-year low against the dollar, forcing the country's central bank to jack interest rates up to 14.25 percent to stabilise the currency and curb inflation. The go nment, meantime, has had to scale back its fiscal savings plans in order to prop up the economy.

大衆和寶馬都警告稱,中國經濟放緩可能會影響今年的汽車銷量。中國是全球最大的汽車市場,也是西方汽車制造商近年來的主要增長來源。

中國經濟放緩也打擊了大宗商品價格,給生産和出口關鍵原材料的國家帶來了财政壓力。

這讓巴西的情況變得更加複雜。就在不久前,巴西還希望借助大宗商品熱潮跻身全球頂級經濟體之列,但結果卻發現自己陷入了長達7年的零增長或負增長。

巴西雷亞爾兌美元彙率跌至12年低點,迫使巴西央行将利率上調至14.25%,以穩定貨币并遏制通脹。與此同時,政府不得不縮減其财政儲蓄計劃,以支撐經濟。 

Standard and Poor's last month switched the outlook on Brazil's 'BBB-' rating to negative, which means the country's investment-grade ranking is at risk. 

Brazil is in good company in having its money pummelled, with fellow emerging markets like Mexico, South Africa, Colombia and Turkey also witnessing their currencies slide to multi-year lows. 

标準普爾上個月将巴西的“BBB-”評級展望調降至負面,這意味着該國的投資級評級面臨風險。

巴西與其他新興市場國家(如墨西哥、南非、哥倫比亞和土耳其)的貨币彙率也跌至多年低點。

 

Rajesh Panda

Hello

I do not think Chinese economy can hit brasil in the long term. i really think this devaluation of the BRL has given a Opportunity for startups here to engage and find manufacturing ideas which will help the export economy  

so Brasil can only go Up from here and te wrost is over

你好

我不認為中國經濟會長期沖擊巴西。我真的認為巴西雷亞爾的貶值為這裡的初創企業提供了一個機會,讓他們能參與進來,找到有助于出口經濟的制造理念。

所以巴西隻能從這裡開始反彈,最糟糕的局面已經結束。

 

Rafael Kaufmann Nedal, born and raised in Brazil, pays attention

It's too early to say, as the China crisis has only really started and we don't have many real-time economical indicators (apart from the financial market, which is tanking).

現在下結論還為時過早,因為中國的危機才剛剛真正開始,而且我們沒有太多實時的經濟指标(除了正在下跌的金融市場)。

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